Related Concepts and Why they Matter.

Having created my previous 2 units of inquiry, Who We Are and How We Express Ourselves, my thinking for the final two UOIs followed the same process (See previous posts). I had decided that my two final UOIs would be How We Organize Ourselves and Sharing the Planet. As you can see below, clear connections can be made to our 5 Through Lines (Related Concepts) in each of the units.

I started to wonder about the connections between the 5 ‘Through Lines’ that have been identified and conceptual understandings in each of the 6 subjects. I found that I could find clear links to each subject and through line. Some are more obvious than others but connections could be made. Below is an examples:

After making connections between the 5 ‘Through Lines’ identified, UOIs and conceptual understandings, I started to think about how I may organise my UOIs throughout the year. I have had some experience with this in the past which has involved staggering the starts of each of the UOIs until by the end of the year each of the 4 UOIs were running simultaneously. Within my thinking process these were the times the children would be introduced to each of the UOIs and a time for teacher focus on the conceptual understandings and intended learning for each unit. Throughout the year the ‘through lines’ would connect each of the UOIs and conceptual understandings. These connections would although the learners to develop a concrete understanding of each related concept as they would view them through various lens.

I also remembered a visual created by Yuni Santosa which demonstrates how different inquiries can run throughout the year. Again, the related concepts, or through lines, would make it possible to seamlessly move in an out of each of the UOIs.

I finished by thinking about how to track the children’s learning in each of the UOIs throughout the year. As mentioned in the first post of this series of blogs a one point rubric could be created at the beginning of the year that could include the intended learning linked to each of the related concepts or through lines.

As a EY educator I would feel very happy to explore the suggested approach to inquiry. I still wonder what it may look like if I were to continue to the next year level. How would we create new related concepts? How would they connect and progress from this year?


Concept Planning, Part 2: Following the threads of learning.

Having created the first unit of inquiry (UOI), ‘Who We Are’, I began to wonder about the second UOI of the year, for my imaginary 3-4 year old class, ‘How We Express Ourselves’. I had been intrigued by a recent conversation with colleagues regarding the concept of ‘through lines’, as we called them. The discussion had taken place during an activity in which we had been tasked with creating a Programme of Inquiry (POI) for an imaginary school. As we worked we started to notice related concepts that transcended each of the UOIs. Almost like threads of learning that weaved through the POI connecting with each of the UOIs and in turn with each other. This idea has excited me ever since.

I have always been a big advocate for creating opportunities for running multiple UOIs at the same time (I would argue that we basically already do in my instances). I believe it is just a matter of when we focus on specific units throughout the year. There is also the challenge of ensuring that the children progress in their knowledge, skills and understanding in each of the units and how can this be tracked? Although I have trialled this approach in the past, these questions have never really been fully answered but I am convinced that the answer lies in the ‘through lines’ or the common related concepts in each of the UOI.

I wanted to further explore the idea of through lines so I looked at which related concepts were evident in each of my first 2 units. I managed to identify 5 that really stood out, Identity, Culture, Wellbeing, Relationships, and Responsibility. I began to imagine how each of the related concepts would connect across the 2 units. It was quite easy to find clear connections within the conceptual understandings across each of the subjects. Below is an example of my thinking. I could continue this process for each of the other 4 through lines that I have identified.

As I continued to develop my unit of inquiry I also realised the the Key Concepts would also change the lens in which we engage with each of the ‘through lines’.

I repeated the process from my previous blog post to complete my UOI, How We Express Ourselves and begin to prepare the learning spaces for inquiry during the first week.


Concept-Based Planning: A step by step guide to planning an inquiry.

I was inspired to create this work after a recent activity in which myself and several colleagues were asked to create a unit of inquiry from the beginning through to the first week of teaching. It was a productive experience and it made me think more deeply about my own planning process so I decided to have a go at creating my own unit of inquiry and documenting the steps. For my example I chose the transdisciplinary theme Who We Are, aimed at a class of 3-4 year olds, and running for the whole year.

I began by breaking down the descriptor for the transdisciplinary theme, highlighting any related concepts. As this is a whole year inquiry I found it helpful to identify a wide range of related concepts as this would allow a different focus for the inquiry at different times of the year. My next step was to consider which key concepts transcend the related concepts that had been identified.

Note: Some may choose to start with the key concepts and then identify the related concepts.

Once I had identified the key concepts I considered the approaches to learning. Which skills will the children learn through during the inquiry? And finally, which of the Learner Profile do we wish to develop during this inquiry?

Considering all the elements identified so far, I created my Central Idea and Lines of Inquiry. This is the part that I have reflected on the most. I am not sure I am quite happy with the Central Idea and Lines of Inquiry but for the purpose of demonstrating process rather than product it will have to do. Having a few more lines of inquiry may be useful if considering different focuses throughout the year but I think the 4 suggestions given below are pretty broad and provide ample opportunity to provide different focus throughout the year.

Now I have my Central Idea and Lines of Inquiry I need to consider my teacher questions that will drive the inquiry and what will learning look like in week 1? I have considered the learning engagements that promote the development of the Key Concepts and teacher questions that begin to explore the related concepts through the lines of inquiry.

Once I was at this stage I started to consider how the subjects are embedded into the inquiry. I then considered the conceptual understandings that the learning engagements would address regrading each subject. Through this process I can begin to map out the conceptual understandings within each subject. This can be further explored during the coming process.

I think that once you have intentionally oragnised your learning spaces to support independent, or guided, exploration it is important to document observations of the children, how are they using this space? What questions are they asking? In a perfect world it would now be the children’s questions and personal inquiries that begin to shape the unit. These will support educators in thinking about next steps.

Week 1:

I would like to thank Anne Van Dam for inspiring, and challenging, my thinking and also for reintroducing me to one-point rubrics. These are great for tracking individual’s progress overtime. The one below has been created using I can … statements. I have used one-point rubrics in the past and have never been sure about the headings. I found the idea for Glows and Grows on line and quite liked it.

This kind of assessment would be more beneficial if it were shared with specialist educators so that we can develop an even broader understanding of the learners development and progress.


The Right to a Progressive Education: “The child, unhampered, does not waste time.” ― Caroline Pratt

“The child, unhampered, does not waste time.” ― Caroline Pratt

The world of education is a tapestry of beliefs, values and philosophies. Each is created through an individual’s personal experiences, social, political and cultural factors (Schunk, 2021). I would argue that all philosophies in education are developed with good intentions which can manifest in different ways. As I reflect on my own personal experiences within education I have observed a continual development with regards to  my own educational philosophy. 

Initially, I was influenced by the British educational system, first as a student and then as a graduate teacher. I was never a particularly ‘good’ student at school. I would often become distracted and disengaged with the lessons. I realised that as long as I sat quietly and did not disturb the teacher my lack of participation had little impact on the process of the lesson. School was just somewhere I had to be and, in the end, my success or failure was determined by tests that involved my ability to remember dates, facts and figures. Something I was not particularly very good at. 

Once I began my teaching career I was determined to create a classroom that children were excited to be. At the beginning of my career I was still working within the confines of the British National Curriculum but I would spend hours creating resources and activities that engaged the children. I was delighted when my classroom was buzzing with excitement, children discussing their activities and moving around, instead of sitting in rows. And, to the annoyance of some of my colleagues, my classroom was often quite noisy and messy. I also enjoyed the connections and relationships I developed with my students. I would take the time to listen to their stories, share their ideas, and personal experiences. In my own time at school I often felt anonymous and would be surprised if my teachers knew my name, let alone know that I had a cat called Cleo, I liked writing stories, and that I was excited that my grandma was coming for dinner. As I reflect on my teaching career I realise that my approach to teaching and learning was formed through defiant opposition to my own educational experiences. I offer what I believe the children in my care need and deserve. It is only since that I have continued in my career that I have come to understand that much of my philosophy towards education is regarded as progressive.

I believe that children have the right to be recognised as unique individuals, and they should see themselves within the school environments we create. The learning spaces I help to develop are culturally responsive, recognising and supporting the cultural and social influences of the individual children. This may be achieved through the learning experiences, visual imagery, class library, or building positive relationships (Burnham, 2021). ‘Learning and thinking occur in the context of learners’ beliefs about cognition, which differ as a function of personal, social, and cultural factors” (Schunk, 2012). 

Progressive classrooms recognise the importance of social interaction as part of the learning process. Within my current school we allow the children to move freely. As a consequence they interact with one another. This provides opportunities to develop communication and social skills, such as cooperation and tolerance for different points of view. We believe that ‘children need to grow and learn in their relationships, identity, emotional understanding, and overall well-being’ (Flook, 2022). The social and emotional aspect of learning is integrated throughout our curriculum starting with the relationships between the educators and the children. We believe in a curriculum that teaches the whole child. 

In contrast to the isolated subject focus of my own education, our curriculum is transdisciplinary and organised around related concepts. A variety of learning experiences are created and developed that support the children’s exploration of a concept. This progressive approach allows the transfer of knowledge, skills, and understanding to different areas of the curriculum and real-life context. The learning environment provides a range of learning experiences that engage active participation, curiosity, exploration, discovery and are connected to the interests of the children (Labaree, 2005). ‘Knowledge is created through a process of discovery and cannot exist in a vacuum apart from the experiences of learners’ (Tippett, Lee, 2019). ‘Progressive inquiry-based learning, that is driven by students’ interests, boosts their motivation and develops real-world skills’ (Flook, 2022). The children are not passive but are active agents. They are recognised as confident and capable learners with the capacity to take responsibility for their own learning journey. 

In contrast to my own school teachers, who stood at the front of the classroom, I learn alongside the children. Throughout the process there is an emphasis on supporting the children in learning how to learn, ‘and subject matter as a secondary concern, valuable mostly as a medium for skill acquisition rather than as the substantive focus of learning’ (Labaree, 2005).  My role is to guide, facilitate and develop the learning process by observing, listening, and asking questions in order to engage learning and support critical thinking. I document the children’s process and use it as a point of reflection with the children. Reflection plays a significant role within our systems and the learning process. ‘In contrast to traditional forms of education that seek to discipline students in particular ways of knowing, reflection is key to the progressive philosophy. Reflection empowers the individual to take agency in the production of knowledge and ensure that knowledge is made relevant to the individual in the contemporary world’ (Tippett, Lee, 2019).

As an educator I believe that I am in a privileged and unique position to make a positive impact on the child in my care and society as a whole. Through a progressive educational approach we support the students in developing the skills and aptitudes that help to create socially engaged and internationally minded citizens of the future. The emphasis on skills and aptitudes prepares the students for the uncertain future of tomorrow. 


Labaree, D. F. (2005). Progressivism, schools and Schools of Education: An American romance. Paedagogica Historica, 41(1-2), 275–288.

390, 10, & 65354. (2016, November 3). Philosophies of Education: 3 types of student-centered philosophies. The Edvocate. Retrieved September 17, 2022, from

Course hero. Education, Society, & the K-12 Learner | | Course Hero. (n.d.). Retrieved September 17, 2022, from

Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories: An educational perspective (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Burnham, K. (2021, March 9). Culturally responsive teaching: 5 strategies for educators. Northeastern University Graduate Programs. Retrieved September 17, 2022, from

Flook, L. (2022). Four ways schools can support the whole child. Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved September 17, 2022, from

Tippett, T. P., & Lee, J. J. (2019). Looking back to move forward: Understanding Progressive Education in … Retrieved September 19, 2022, from


Creative by Nature. The importance of allowing creativity to flourish across the curriculum

Everyone has a creative potential and from the moment you can express this creative potential, you can start changing the world.” – Paulo Coelho

‘Creativity has traditionally been the battle cry of the arts in education’ (Kraehe, 2018), yet it is implied that more recently there has been a change in mindset with both education and business sectors recognising more value to the concept of creativity. And, according to the World Economic Forum, creativity will be the third-most-important skill for employees by 2020, behind complex problem-solving and critical thinking.

Screen Shot 2019-04-13 at 10.46.58 AMIt has been said that ‘creativity has often been maligned, neglected and misunderstood’ within education. With this in mind, just how important is creativity? Is it just a matter of providing more lessons for the arts or is there something more? Through this blog, I will explore the role creativity has played in our past and present, and how allowing greater opportunities for creative expression within our classrooms will influence our future.

Creativity expert Sir Ken Robinson makes the case for creativity as the crucial 21st century skill we will need to solve today’s pressing problems. I would go further and argue that creativity, or innovation, is not just a necessary 21st Century skill but has always been a driving force in human evolution and will continue to be a vital skill driving our progress. Creativity is not only a quality that has set us apart from other animals, but  also defines who we are as a species. Augustín Fuentes explores this concept in his book, The Creative Spark: How Imagination Made Humans ExceptionalHarnessing the latest findings in evolution, biology, and archaeology, he creates a new synthesis to show that the great drivers of human progress have been creativity and cooperation. From the emergence of cave paintings and the development of simple tools, human evolution has been shaped by our ability to approach and explore abstract concepts to apply creative solutions to pressing problems. If this is to be the case, then providing an “education system that denies the learners individual expression or creativity denies in essence the nature of who we are.”

Our relationship with creativity begins at a young age. From about eighteen months old all children begin to engage in creative play. They engage in imaginary conversations or they pretend to be engaging in a wide variety of adult or fictional activities. Give a child a cardboard box and some inspiration and imagination comes to life. It may look like ‘child’s play’ (excuse the pun) but play is serious business to our young learners and is vital to their healthy development. The experiences children have during their first years of life can significantly enhance the development of their creativity. In the process of creative play children open up their minds to possibilities, take chances, solve problems, collaborate and develop their creative thinking. All the critical 21st century skills that Sir Ken Robinson is talking about.

Screen Shot 2019-04-21 at 5.11.03 PMThe work of Peter Carruthers (2002) suggests a more deep rooted application in that ‘the evolutionary function of childhood pretence is to practice and enhance adult forms of creativity’. He states that ‘the two capacities can be seen as sharing essentially the same cognitive basis, in so far as both involve exercises of imagination. It will then be plausible that adult creativity in thought and action is what childhood pretence is for. (This is yet another indicator of the importance of creativity as a phenotypic property of human beings.) That is to say, it will appear likely that the function of pretence should be to practice and enhance the kind of creativity which acquires so much significance in our adult lives.’ 

As an early childhood educator I more than recognise the importance of creative play as an essential tool in a child’s development and a means for children to demonstrate their creative expression. There are far too many benefits to go into any depth here but in short, play is essential to development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, emotional well-being of children. Creativity emerges through the children’s  exploration, curiosity and self-interests. Creative connections are made while children play, stimulating opportunities for self-expression and building social relationships. Yet despite these numerous benefits many children have often had the time for free play reduced to make room for more academics. Many children are being raised in an increasingly hurried and pressured style that may limit the protective benefits they would gain from child-driven play.

Unfortunately, I believe these views are driven by the more traditionalist view of creativity that has often discredited, undervalued and underappreciated creative endeavours. Many parents believing that creativity is an intrinsic ability of certain people with unusual talents. ‘Creativity has often lost its importance and worth in the hierarchy of ability that society has created. ‘Cleverness’ and one’s ability to memorise textbook facts and figures seems to have become a respected skill, one that directly correlates to importance and intellect’ (Fearon, 2015)

Screen Shot 2019-04-07 at 11.34.39 AMCertainly within my own thinking creative expression is something that should not only be confined to the art and music rooms but also should be allowed to flourish across the curriculum. Our thoughts, actions, and words can all be forms of creativity. Creativity is the ability to reimagine traditional ideas, rules, patterns and relationships and to create meaningful new ideas, forms, methods and interpretations. When we think about creativity in this manner then it transcends the curriculum. It is no longer just about having more art and music lessons but a way of approaching the curriculum as a whole. Sir Ken Robinson states that a misconception is that “people associate creativity with the arts only, and that creativity is really a function of everything we do. So education for creativity is about the whole curriculum, not just part of it.”

When I think about the learning that happens within my own classroom, it is the creative application of concepts by the learners that I believe demonstrates the deepest understanding. An example of this is when these young learners create their own number sentence using triangles after our work on addition. They had not simply mimicked the teaching, but had applied their understanding in an abstract and creative manner that demonstrates new ways of thinking. Screen Shot 2019-04-11 at 6.31.21 PMThey had not only understood the concept, but had made progress in their learning. One of the same learners also transferred his understanding of addition in the art classroom, demonstrating his understanding of mathematical symbols and concepts using colour. Again, this creative application of knowledge not only demonstrates a deep understanding of concept but also that the learner is capable of transferring and applying skills across the curriculum and in new situations. 

Creativity, as I understand it, will normally manifest itself in new types of behaviour, going beyond mere re-applications of established scripts or action-patterns. And creativity itself is constituted, in part, by a capacity to combine together ideas in novel ways in abstraction from any immediate environmental stimulation‘ – Peter Carruthers

Screen Shot 2019-04-16 at 9.21.24 AMMany learners will simply show their understanding by mimicking the activities demonstrated during the teaching process. By simply mimicking the teaching, we only have the opportunity to assess whether they have understood the idea and have retained  the knowledge. But if learners transfer their knowledge to ‘real-life’ situations or apply creative application of the concept, then they are able to demonstrate a deeper understanding and take next steps in learning. If as a society we only mimicked what had come before, then no progress would have been made, using the example of primitive tools versus advancements in technology. There can therefore be an argument that creative application drives progress demonstrating it to be a vital component in human evolution.

I think it is also important to mention that we cannot always rely on creative application as a means of assessing a learner’s deeper understanding of a concept. It may be the case that they possess the understanding but lack the skills or  inclination to apply it in new or creative ways. For a lot of our learners there is a desire to ‘please’ the teacher and this can be achieved by just simply mimicking the teaching with little need to apply creative thinking. If we consider the possibility that learners possess the creativity but lack the skills to apply it, then we have to ask: can creativity be taught?

“Creativity is a disciplined process that requires skill, knowledge, and control. Obviously, it also requires imagination and inspiration. But it’s not simply a question of venting: It’s a disciplined path of daily education.”  Sir Ken Robinson

The ability to teach creativity is an ongoing debate but the consensus amongst a growing number of educators is that everyone has ‘tremendous creative capacities’ but often lacks the skills or knowledge to apply them. “One cannot think creatively unless one has the knowledge with which to think creatively. Creativity represents a balance between knowledge and freeing oneself of that knowledge” (Johnson-Laird, 1988, p.207, cited by Sternberg, 2012, p.4).

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For creative thinking to deepen and extend learning, rather than be an enjoyable but superficial activity, it must be grounded in understanding of the content being investigated. It is vital that learners have sufficient understanding of the material with which they are being asked to be creative. Creative practice needs to complement diligent and deliberate practice that develops foundational skills – not be a substitute for it. Creativity is a learning habit that requires skill as well as specific understanding of the contexts in which creativity is being applied. Developing creativity ‘We really need to stop considering thinking as simply ‘intelligence in action’ and think of it as a skill that can be developed by everyone.’ (Edward De Bono, 1982) According to De Bono (1982) fostering creativity in an effective way we must develop some techniques that are specific for thinking because our brain is not designed for that purpose as the first purpose of its function and it is not capable of creating great things or ideas. Over the years, De Bono and other writers have promoted the view that creative thinking is something that can be developed by anyone.” (Developing the Cambridge Learner Attributes)

Screen Shot 2019-04-16 at 6.48.13 PMI would agree that skills and understanding of a concept play an important role in supporting creativity within that area of learning. Without the skills and understanding, a learner may have the vision but lack the capabilities to implement. However, it is clear from the observation of many learners that skills and understanding are not a gaurantee that creativity or new ways of thinking will occur. Indeed it may be the case that a learner possesses the necessary skills but lacks the vision or inclination to apply them in new and creative ways. Also, a learner having the skills of a specific learning area without the creative inclination may find it challenging to transfer this understanding to other areas of the curriculum or to ‘real-life’ situations. An artist may know how to paint but without vision or purpose is unable to transform that skill into a positive difference. So the question would be, how do we move students beyond skills and understanding to a place where creative  and positive expression occurs?

From my own experience there must be some form of stimulus provided in order to begin the spark of creativity. I would consider myself to be quite creative but I often require the stimulus of others’ thinking to stimulate my own. I suppose that would be the essence of collaboration and why Augustín Fuentes argued for “creativity and cooperation” being the driving forces for human progress. Nobody works within a vacuum and it could be argued that all the great artists, musicians or innovators have been influenced by others or the cultural environment in which they were in.

Screen Shot 2019-04-16 at 8.40.16 PMI am made to think of a personal experience I had during a recent workshop that is a good reflection of my own creative process. We had been given a range of coloured pencils and a blank piece of paper and asked to create four designs for a specific purpose. When I stared at the blank piece of paper in front of me I was terrified. I had no idea how or where to begin and certainly had no spark of creativity. I remember clearly each step of my creative process after the initial sense of fear. First, I began to look cautiously at the work of others and study their work. My first design was almost a copy of my neighbour with only slight alterations. As I moved to my next two designs, I grew more confident in my understanding of the task and the expectations. As I became more confident in my understanding of the task, each design became more personalised representing new ways of thinking. I was no longer just mimicking the designs of my neighbour but applying my own creative thinking to the task. As I came to my final design, I was confident enough in my understanding of the task and my ability that I created something that was uniquely my own. Pleasingly, it was the final design that attracted the most interest from my colleagues.

Throughout the process of creating my designs I could not help but think of the learners in the classroom and how a blank piece of paper could cause the same anxiety that I felt. Arguably to others, the same blank piece of paper may represent new opportunities free from the influence of other people’s ideas. We must therefore be mindful of the learners needs and how much stimulation or guidance is given. Each of them has the capability to express themselves creatively but each will require varying levels of support to make the difference. I am reminded of a quote by Kath Murdoch when talking about student agency, “Choice without support can leave us feeling lost/anxious. Choice without responsibility can make us feel over-entitled, choice without purpose can be confusing.” 

Screen Shot 2019-04-16 at 8.39.27 PMSo how do we teach creativity in the classroom? Well firstly, Sir Ken Robinson makes a distinction between “teaching creatively” and “teaching for creativity”. When educators are teaching creatively they are bringing their own creative skills to the classroom to make the content more interesting to the learner, they are finding innovative and creative ways of connecting the learning to the learner. But when we are talking about teaching for creativity we are implementing a curriculum that is designed to encourage the learners to think creatively. We are creating a learning environment that allows and encourages learners to experiment and innovate. Not giving them all the answers but giving them the tools they need to find out what the answers might be or to explore new avenues.” – Sir Ken Robinson

It has been said that educators often claim to value creativity, but we do not always prioritize it. Traditionally we have often had bias against creative students fearing disruption in the classroom. We have often devalued creative personality attributes such as risk-taking and impulsivity and even stifled creativity by focusing on the reproduction of knowledge and obedience in class (Gabora, 2021). This would suggest that regardless of whether creativity can be taught it can certainly be repressed by our attitudes towards it or the environments we create.

Every child is born creative and imaginative, but this capacity can be restrained if we do not create the right environment for our learners to behave imaginatively and release their creative energy. It is therefore crucial we nurture this behaviour and thinking as it plays an important role in developing the soft skills needed in life outside of the classroom. We should be empowering our students to push the boundaries, question the norm and to think outside of the box. It is crucial that we encourage our students to recognise that not everything goes to plan and to seek alternative and unique solutions to challenges and in turn helping our students to build resilience and confidence in their abilities. Embracing creativity in the classroom is a great way to challenge the notion of static learning: the idea that there’s merely one correct way to solve a problem or come to a solution. Whilst one plus one will always equal two, there are a multitude of ways to teach that concept. We are all creative, and indeed, creativity permeates our everyday actions (Duch, 2007). But these talents are often buried deep (Robinson, 2010), and the challenge for educational institutions is to provide appropriate environments and skills for learners to discover and maximize their creative potential.

It is important that we provide our students with plenty of opportunities for creative play and creative thinking. These activities should not be restricted to the art and music rooms but should flourish across the curriculum. After all, the world doesn’t come carved up into different subject areas. Every subject can be creative! Even the more defined and structured topics like maths and science have areas where creativity can be embedded into the topic to encourage a greater depth of understanding with students. Creativity doesn’t need to be a subject of its own, instead, it should be weaved into absolutely every aspect of learning and teaching.

We need to create safe and welcoming environments where ideas can flow freely with persecution and where students can try and test their own creative solutions, without the fear of failure or the pressure of getting it right. Activities should follow the students interests and ideas so it is imperative that we listen intently to what they are saying. Activities should not produce a predictable product, allowing the decision making to be in the hands of the students. This includes time to think about how to plan, design, construct, experiment and revise project ideas.

We must remember that being creative is more than drawing and painting so it is important that we offer our students a wide range of creative materials and experiences. And perhaps because we have so often aligned creativity to artistic ability, we must not assume that every student who draws or loves to paint is creative. Creativity and the ability to have a vested interest in learning comes in all forms and will mean something different to every child.

BoardAdapting to the learning needs in the wake of a global pandemic to empowering and building a digital generation capable of starting billion-dollar companies overnight; creativity and abstract thinking have become prerequisites in a student’s repertoire of skills needed for the future of society (Canva, 2020).